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Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, United States nuclear command and control, multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles, Alternate National Military Command Center, The Cuban Missile Crisis: Second Holocaust, Nuclear utilization target selection (NUTS), "A Most Special Relationship: The Origins of Anglo-American Nuclear Strike Planning", http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/cws/summary/v009/9.2young.html, "The Future United Kingdom Strategic Deterrent Force", http://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/6AC6FE79AE5E485DB3A2B579B6AE0654.pdf, "NATO in the Beholder's Eye: Soviet Perceptions and Policies, 1949–56", http://stage-wilson.p2technology.com/sites/default/files/ACFB01.pdf, http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/history/cold-war/strategy/article-dulles-retaliation_1954-01-12.htm, "The Creation of SIOP-62: More Evidence on the Origins of Overkill", http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB130/SIOP-2.pdf, http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB130/SIOP-3A.pdf, "The U.S. Nuclear War Plan: A Time for Change", http://holtz.org/Library/Social%20Science/Political%20Science/US%20Nuclear%20War%20Plan%20-%20NRDC%202001.pdf, http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB130/SIOP-25.pdf, "War-Fighting Deterrence and Alliance Cohesiveness", http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/aureview/1984/sep-oct/cimbala.html, "Presidential Directive 59, Nuclear Weapons Employment Policy", http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/pd/pd59.pdf, "Global Strike: A Chronology of the Pentagon's New Offensive Strike Plan", http://www.nukestrat.com/pubs/GlobalStrikeReport.pdf, http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/facility/nmcc.htm, "Alternate National Military Command Center", http://partners.nytimes.com/library/magazine/home/20001203mag-gifford.html, http://www.nytimes.com/2000/06/12/opinion/trapped-in-the-nuclear-math.html, http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB130/, "First Declassification of Eisenhower's Instructions to Commanders Predelegating Nuclear Weapons Use, 1959-1960", http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB45/, http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/FRUS.FRUS195860v03, "Rewriting US Presidential Nuclear War Planning Guidance", http://www.fas.org/blog/ssp/2011/08/nuclearguidance.php, http://www.nukestrat.com/us/stratcom/siopname.htm, http://www.nrdc.org/nuclear/warplan/index.asp, http://www.gwu.edu/%7Ensarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB108/fire-3.pdf, http://www.slate.com/articles/life/the_spectator/2011/02/an_unsung_hero_of_the_nuclear_age.html, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Single_Integrated_Operational_Plan?oldid=4418637. Deputy's launch keyswitch in an old Minuteman ICBM launch control center. At the same time as the early nuclear arms control work, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Nathan F. Twining, USAF, sent a memorandum in August 1959, to the Secretary of Defense, Neil McElroy, which suggested that the Strategic Air Command be formally assigned responsibility to prepare the national nuclear target list, and a single plan for nuclear operations. The issue paper was meant to be a vehicle for quick dissemination intended to stimulate discussion in a policy community. , By the 1950s around 5,500 targets were listed to receive SAC bomber strikes; these targets consisted primarily of industrial sites but included counterforce targets. Subject: Policy for Systems Engineering in DoD. Even during the COVID-19 situation, the JMSDF continues to work with allied and partner navies, thus contributing to the regional peace and stability and a Free and Open Indo-Pacific.” By the end of 1948 several British bases were atomic-capable or were close to being so, but the ability to fight an atomic war from Britain did not exist until April 1949 when "Silverplate" atomic-capable B-29 bombers began rotating through the bases, and no American atomic weapons were present in Britain until 1952. Examples: Factories for ammunition and tanks, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, power plants. The Current Military Operations Service. The Air Force often used target lists to justify greater weapons production, then greater spending on delivery systems for the additional weapons. Soviet planning thus emphasized defenses against nuclear bombing, and attacks on Western European bomber bases. 855 0 obj <> endobj For webmasters, COPYRIGHT 2005 National Defense University. Globally Integrated Operations. He is based in Cologne, Germany. :93–95 In August 1950 Secretary of the Navy Francis Matthews publicly advocated a preventive war, but NSC 68 forecast that even after a massive preventive attack the USSR would likely not surrender and its forces could still "dominate most or all of Eurasia.  It and later plans such as HALFMOON (May 1948; 50 bombs on 20 cities) and OFFTACKLE (December 1949; 104 urban targets, 220 bombs, 72 more reserved for follow-up attacks) envisioned Western forces in Europe slowly retreating while the United Kingdom was reinforced as an air base for atomic attacks on the Soviet Union.  The doctrine of massive retaliation meant that, for the first time, atomic weapons became the basis of NATO strategy rather than an option of last resort. He recommended that targets be chosen based on analysis of the results of their destruction, and that "city-avoidance" strategies be studied. Although issue papers are formally reviewed, authors have substantial latitude to express provocative views without doing full justice to other perspectives. President Donald Trump has made it a pastime to regularly complain how Germany, in his view, is taking advantage of the United States when it comes to its security. Plans in 1946 and 1948 assumed that during war with an unspecified enemy, Soviet forces in Germany would assume defensive positions within the Soviet occupation zone and wait for reinforcements before counterattacking. Although other services opposed such "bootstrapping", they did not have the IBM 704 computer that SAC used to analyze target priorities so could not offer competing selection lists.  By this time Truman was pessimistic about international arms control and told his advisors "Since we can't obtain international control we must be strongest in atomic weapons." John S. McCain is underway conducting operations in support of a free and open Indo-Pacific, while assigned to Destroyer Squadron (DESRON) 15, the Navy’s largest forward-deployed DESRON and the U.S. 7th Fleet’s principal surface force.
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