What volume of glacial acetic acid is required to prepare 5.00 L of a 1.75 M solution of acetic acid in ethanol? What mass of solid NaOH (97.0% NaOH by mass) is required to prepare 1.00 L of a 10.0% solution of NaOH by mass? Express the mercury concentration of the wastewater in ppm and ppb units. Example 4 reviews the methods for calculating the molarity and mole fraction of a solution when the masses of its components are known. If 25.0 mL of a solution of HCl in water is required to react completely with 1.05 g of aluminum metal, what is the molarity of the HCl solution? }g�5�6�Q���s�=L?���t�,�����1k��R5�d�XJ�����Қ1k� Figure 3. Why? 8th ed. The label of a typical liquid bleach bottle (Figure 1) cites the concentration of its active ingredient, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), as being 7.4%. sample has concentration of 55 nM, does it exceed the MAC? The Learning Objective of this module is to describe the concentration of a solution in the way that is most appropriate for a particular problem or application. Petrucci, Harwood, Herring. 7.5 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds, VIII. 507 0 obj<>stream Percentage concentrations based on the solution components’ masses, volumes, or both are useful for expressing relatively high concentrations, whereas lower concentrations are conveniently expressed using ppm or ppb units. Express the mercury concentration of the wastewater in ppm and ppb units. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Using the solution density given, we can convert the solution’s volume to mass, and then use the given mass percentage to calculate the solute mass. 3.1 Formula Mass and the Mole Concept, 18. The solvent that makes up most of the solution, whereas a solute is the substance that is dissolved inside the solvent. 0000007906 00000 n (2) Volume Percent = Volume of Solute Volume of Solution × 100 %. TERMS AND UNITS Unit of drug concentration: μg/mL or ng/mL. Complete the following table for each compound given. How many moles of Na+ are there in 25.0 g of a 1.33 × 10−3 m Na2HPO4 solution? How do chemists decide which units of concentration to use for a particular application? Since the solution density isn’t greatly different from that of water (1 g/mL), a reasonable estimate of the HCl mass in 500 g (0.5 L) of the solution is about five times greater than that in a 100 g portion, or 5 ×× 40 = 200 g. Because mass percentage and parts per million or billion are simply different ways of expressing the ratio of the mass of a solute to the mass of the solution, they enable us to express the concentration of a substance even when the molecular mass of the substance is unknown. What is the key difference between using mole fraction or molality versus molarity to describe the concentration of a solution? Mass percentages are popular concentration units for consumer products. Composition of Substances and Solutions, 17. (a) The dilution equation can be used, appropriately modified to accommodate mass-based concentration units: This equation can be rearranged to isolate mass1 and the given quantities substituted into this equation. A solution of concentrated phosphoric acid contains 85.0% \(H_3PO_4\) by mass and has a density of 1.684 g/mL. Missed the LibreFest? Sulfuric acid, for example, is sold as a 95% aqueous solution, or 95 g of \(H_2SO_4\) per 100 g of solution. What is the percent by mass of glucose in spinal fluid? Calculation of Percent by Mass Meperidine is a medication used for pain relief. dose level (μg/kg), infusion rate (μg/min × kg), clearance (mL/min × kg), apparent volume of distribution (mL/kg). A The molarity is the number of moles of acetic acid per liter of solution. 9.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law, 52. We can calculate the number of moles of acetic acid as its mass divided by its molar mass. 0000000892 00000 n Very low solute concentrations are often expressed using appropriately small units such as parts per million (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb). Liquid volumes over a wide range of magnitudes are conveniently measured using common and relatively inexpensive laboratory equipment. Hydrogen peroxide (\(H_2O_2\)) is usually sold over the counter as an aqueous solution that is 3% by mass. 3.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations, IV. Molality, therefore, has the same numerator as molarity (the number of moles of solute) but a different denominator (kilogram of solvent rather than liter of solution). When calculating these percentages, that the units of the solute and solution should be equivalent units (and weight/volume percent (w/v %) is defined in terms of grams and mililiters). Comparing these two unit definitions shows that ppm is 1000 times greater than ppb (1 ppm = 103 ppb). (1) Mass Percent = Mass of Solute Mass of Solution × 100 %. Concentrations are often expressed in terms of relative unites (e.g. How many moles of CuI are contained in 1.00 lb (454 g) of table salt containing 0.0100% CuI by mass? Calculate the molality of a solution with 775 mg of \(NaCl\) in 500.0 g of water. 0000011579 00000 n The concentration of a solution is the quantity of solute in a given quantity of solution. There are also ppm and ppb units defined with respect to numbers of atoms and molecules. A bottle of meperidine is labeled as 50 mg/mL. 0000004660 00000 n The mass percentage of a solution component is defined as the ratio of the component’s mass to the solution’s mass, expressed as a percentage: [latex]\text{mass percentage}=\frac{\text{mass of component}}{\text{mass of solution}}\times 100\%[/latex]. Hence the mass of benzene in 250 mL (250 g) of solution is. Assume that the density of the solution is the same as that of water. What mass of HCl is contained in 45.0 mL of an aqueous HCl solution that has a density of 1.19 g cm, The hardness of water (hardness count) is usually expressed in parts per million (by mass) of CaCO. Missed the LibreFest? H���_��@����qH�8���&+k��:�d���� �2Xk? Watch the recordings here on Youtube! This mathematical approach is outlined in this flowchart: For proper unit cancellation, the 0.500-L volume is converted into 500 mL, and the mass percentage is expressed as a ratio, 37.2 g HCl/g solution: This mass of HCl is consistent with our rough estimate of approximately 200 g. Check Your Learning

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